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Teacher Reading Tips: Before, During, and After Reading Strategies

In this section, you can´┐Ż

  • See when to employ reading strategies
  • Learn about specific strategies
  • Review assessment strategies
  • Review instruction with these strategies
  • Read suggested materials

    A Closer Look at the Reading Strategies

    1. Activating Prior Knowledge
    Thinking about what you already know about the topic, author or title.

    2. Previewing/Utilizing Text Structure
    Looking at the title, cover, book jacket information, graphic support, chapter titles, headings, embolden words, margin information, etc., then using this information to determine what is the predominant structure of the text. Knowledge of text structure is used as an aid to comprehension.

    3. Setting a Purpose for Reading
    Identifying the reason for reading. Purpose setting can be greatly enhanced by activating prior knowledge and by previewing and utilizing text structure. Although purpose setting is sometimes set by the teacher or assignment, skilled readers incorporate and internalize external purposes. Purposes can be for entertainment, to get information, or to learn how to perform a task.

    4. Adjusting Rate of Reading
    Selecting an initial rate based on purpose, perceived difficulty, and degree of familiarity with the content. Rate is adjusted while reading as purposes change, or a new assessment of difficulty and familiarity is made.

    5. Predicting Ideas and Events
    Making initial and on-going predictions of ideas and events. Prediction accuracy is greatly enhanced when readers activate prior knowledge and preview and utilize text structure.

    6. Using Imagery
    Recreating in one's mind the sights, sounds, smells, tastes, and touches described by an author.

    7. Using Cueing Systems Effectively
    Accessing, selectively employing, and combining knowledge about how language is structured (syntax), the meaning of words (semantic), and sound/symbol matches (grapho-phonemic).

    8. Employing Vocabulary Techniques
    Utilizing a variety of methods to unlock the meaning of unfamiliar words. This strategy includes use of multiple forms of context, use of graphic information, and the ability to access external sources of word meaning.

    9. Connecting Text to Experiences
    Relating reading to actual or vicariously acquired experiences. This strategy is enhanced when students activate prior knowledge before, during, and after reading.

    10. Monitoring Comprehension
    On-going awareness of the quality of the processing of text. It is the continual realization that a text is or is not making sense. Coupled with monitoring comprehension is the employment of "fix-up" strategies to address a comprehension obstacle.

    11. Checking for Understanding
    Employing a variety of techniques to ensure effective comprehension. Skilled readers check comprehension by stopping periodically and reflecting on their understanding. This reflection can include confirming that the purpose(s) for reading is being, or has been met. Summarization, retelling, and paraphrasing are often used as specific techniques.

    Review assessment strategies

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